The development of powerful, loud guitar amplifiers and sound reinforcement systems in the 1960s and 1970s permitted bands to hold large concerts where even those with the least expensive tickets could hear the show. Orchestral works by the French composers Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy’s used timbre, ambiguous tonality and unusual scales to suggest colour. ... true of music in all periods. Twentieth century music brought new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. Enjoy digitised treasures from our collections, sound recordings, and newly commissioned articles. As time progressed, and as the Romantic period saw changes in accepted modification with composers such as Berlioz and Mahler, the 20th century saw that instrumentation could practically be hand-picked by the composer. Instrumentation - Instrumentation - Post-Romanticism in the 20th century and beyond: Claude Debussy in France was probably the most important composer of the period from 1880 until the turn of the 20th century. 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature I've told you that one of the best ways to understand a society is to look at the art, music, and literature it produces. In the early 20th century, many composers, including Rachmaninoff, Richard Strauss, Giacomo Puccini, and Edward Elgar, continued to work in forms and in a musical language that derived from the 19th century. Composers during the beginning of the 20th century rejected what they considered the harmonic excess of the late 19th century romanticism. Eventually he developed what he called twelve tone music. The 20th century and beyond. 20th Century and 21st Century can be broken down into even smaller periods. Starting in the 1960s, the minimalist school focused on using minimal musical material and making use of repetitive patterns, loops and electronic techniques, reflecting technological advances of the day. Over ti… Mauceri, Frank X. Some younger composers such as Oliver Knussen, Wolfgang Rihm, Georg Friedrich Haas, Judith Weir, George Benson, Richard Barrett, Simon Bainbridge, John Luther Adams, Toshio Hosokawa, Bright Sheng, Kaija Saariaho, Tan Dun, Magnus Lindberg, Philippe Manoury, Olga Neuwirth, Rebecca Saunders, David Lang, Hanspeter Kyburz, James MacMillan, Mark-Anthony Turnage, Thomas Adès, Marc-André Dalbavie, Unsuk Chin, Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf, and Michael Daugherty did not rise to prominence until late in the 20th century. Henry Cowell’s Mosaic Quartet allows the players to play fragments of the music in various different sequences, meaning that the piece can sound different each time it is performed. This rather dissonant-sounding music dispenses with traditional harmonic function and lacks a key centre. Musical style diverged during the 20th century as it never had previously. [30] Other songs have different names in different places; for instance in England there is an old ballad known as "A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me", but exactly the same song in North American bluegrass is known as "I Wish My Baby Was Born". [35], At the same time, the neoclassicism that became fashionable in the 1920s is represented by Stravinsky's opera buffa Mavra (1922) and his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927). This was atona… As the 20th Century continued, people came up with various inventive ways of challenging the very meaning of composition. Minimalist music, involving a simplification of materials and intensive repetition of motives began in the late 1950s with the composers Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass. [13] However, the term may also be employed in a broader sense to refer to all post-1945 musical forms.[14]. But many pieces commonly thought of as "art" (Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, many Schubert songs, many Verdi arias) have qualities of simplicity; conversely, it is by no means obvious that the Sex Pistols' records were "accessible", Frank Zappa's work "simple", or Billie Holiday's "facile". Musical texture of Classical music is mostly homophonic but flexible. [10] According to Cage, "an experimental action is one the outcome of which is not foreseen",[11] and he was specifically interested in completed works that performed an unpredictable action. In Beethoven's and Felix Mendelssohn's time in the 19th century, the orchestra was composed of a fairly standard core of instruments which was very rarely modified. This is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment. Composers also continued to incorporate their native folk music in their work, which was a tradition that began in the Romantic period. Modernism, impressionism, and post-romanticism can all be traced to the decades before the turn of the century, but can be included because they evolved beyond the musical … In a sort of parallel to this, Debussy and Ravel rejected the tension and release of traditional cadence-based harmony in favour of tonality that was often more static, remaining within a mode like the whole tone scale, for example, for extended periods. All the Western classical music periods up until the turn of the 20th century had dominating styles and conventions. The musique concrète (French: “concrete music”), developed about 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer and his associates, was an experimental technique using recorded sounds as raw material. He made use of a prepared piano, which has objects placed on or between the strings to alter its sound, often making it more percussive. However, modernism in music became increasingly prominent and important; among the most important modernists were Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, and post-Wagnerian composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, who experimented with form, tonality and orchestration. "Bluegrass gospel" has emerged as a third subgenre, which uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, and sometimes the playing of instrumentals. Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams, Aaron Copland, Alberto Ginastera, Carlos Chávez, Silvestre Revueltas, and Heitor Villa-Lobos used folk themes collected by themselves or others in many of their major compositions. Dan Farrant, the founder of Hello Music Theory, has been teaching music for over 10 years helping thousands of students unlock the joy of music. [7] Composers such as Ravel, Milhaud, and Gershwin combined classical and jazz idioms.[8]. 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